সময়ের তত্ত্ববিদ্যা ও বৈপরিত্যের দর্শন বিষয়ে কতিপয় ভাবনা

ফেইসবুকে স্ট্যাটাস দেয়ার কারণে অনেকেই জেনেছেন, চবি ফিলোসফি বিভাগে গতকাল আমি একটা সেমিনার-টক দিয়েছি। বিষয় ছিলো: Some Reflections on the Ontology of Time and Philosophy of Contradiction। সময় স্বল্পতা ও আনুষাঙ্গিক নানা ধরনের সীমাবদ্ধতার কারণে সেমিনারের রেকর্ডিংটা ততটা ভালো হয় নাই। সেজন্য আজ দুপুরে একই বক্তব্য খানিকটা ইলাবোরেইট করে নতুন একটা ভিডিও-বক্তব্য হিসাবে রেকর্ড করেছি।

এতে মূল সেমিনারের মতো প্রজেক্টর ও হোয়াইটবোর্ড ব্যবহারের সুবিধা না থাকলেও কথাগুলো অধিকতর ধীরেসুস্থে যথাসম্ভব বুঝিয়ে বলার চেষ্টা করেছি। নতুন এই রেকডিংটা ইউটিউবে আমার অন্যতম চ্যানেল “যুক্তি ও জীবন”-এ আপ করেছি। লিংক:

বক্তব্যটির পাওয়ারপয়েন্ট ফাইল:  এবং পিডিএফ ফাইল: The Ontology of Time-ppt

ফিলোসফি নিয়ে আপনার আগ্রহের জন্য জানাচ্ছি আন্তরিক শুভেচ্ছা। আসুন মুক্তকণ্ঠ হই সব ধরনের অন্ধত্বের বিপক্ষে। রুখে দেই সব ধরনের ধর্মবাদিতা ও বিজ্ঞানবাদিতা। নির্দ্বিধায় বলে দেই যুক্তির বাইরে কিছু নাই। বুদ্ধির অনুকূলে আমরা সর্বদা। যে বিশ্বাস যুক্তির দাবী, যে বিশ্বাস বুদ্ধির পরিণতি; সে বিশ্বাসই স্বপক্ষ আমাদের।

Some Reflections on the Ontology of Time and Philosophy of Contradiction

[lecture handout/synopsis]

Measurement of time vs Ontology of time. What is time?

A-theory of time:presentism – only present is the real. Sam Harris’ presentism. no present but only past and future. like quantum superposition. open universe. Heraclitus’s change theory.

B-theory of time: eternalism – past, present and future, all are equally real. block universe. Parmenides’s concept of tenseless reality.

McTaggart ‘s paradox of time: (1) If time is real then either the A-theory or the B-theory accurately describes time as I know it. (2) But if the B-theory is true nothing ever really changes. (3) If nothing ever really changes, time is not real. (4) So, if the B-theory is true, time is not real. (5) But if the A-theory is true, a contradiction follows. (6) No contradiction is true. (7) So, the A-theory cannot be true. (8) So, neither the A-Theory nor the B-theory accurately describes time as we know it. (9) So, time is not real.

Criticism of McTaggart: (1) If time is unreal, then it must be an illusion. If it is illusion, then it there must be a ‘cause’ of it. But, we can’t locate any source of that illusion. Therefore, time is not an illusion. (2) We can locate the becoming of the ‘wrong’ concept of Pegasus. But we fail to find any ‘cause’ of ‘time-illusion’.

Arrow of time: Time flow may be curved. metaphysical impossibility of backward flow of time

Difference between physical, metaphysical and epistemological sense of understanding.

Backward or reverse causation. beginning of time. why Big bang happened?

Time travel is metaphysically impossible. So-called, grandfather paradox. History, archeology and reality from ontological point of view.

Necessary aspects of ontological line of argument: Exclusiveness: exclusiveness of entity, (if P then P). Positive necessity and negative necessity: necessary inclusions and necessary exclusions. Past can’t be altered, unless making or being a ‘new past’.

Big bang: Why has time began? Compare to space, is time emergent, real or fundamental?

Or, space and time are expressions of some more fundamental ‘neutral’ entity? Russell’s theory of neutral monism.

The myth of multiverse: conclusiveness of the concept of “the biggest …”

Is time relative? Absoluteness of time in the context of the speed of light vs relativity of time. Feel of time vs reality of time. Temporal relativity is an observer-dependent phenomenon.

What is the omni-clock hypothesis? either, everything has a clock, or, everything itself is a kind of clock, or, the world itself is a giant clock, having small clocks within.

accuracy of time measurement: as the speed of light, why time is same and constant everywhere? Nature?

what is nature? What do we experience? ‘Nature’ itself? Or, works or aspects of nature? What is the true nature of the ‘nature’? Without any sort of personal agency, how nature works intelligently? Any form of simulation, must have reality-location, no matter distorted or not. What is source of human super-intelligence?

From our experience of constant change (?) to the concept of time: what makes the change? Time? … involves a circular argument.

Is time an experience, assumption or intuition? Experience and time circularity. Representation or quantification of time. Is there any qualification problem in time measurement?

Time is a Kantian undefined category. Nothing is free of ‘the time-factor’ in either form. Not even God or big-bang. If there is ‘zero-time’, mathematically there must be something like ‘negative time’ or minus-time…! Is this idea counter-intuitive? Or, fact?

determinism vs indeterminism: A-theory is for indeterminism. B-theory is for determinism.

From wide content view, from outside the world, determinism is right and logical.

From narrow content view, i.e., from an observer-dependent inside point of view, indeterminism is right.

Human incapacity of defining the ontological reality of: time, temperature, life, identity of self or personhood, truth, justice, good, consciousness etc.

Limitation of logical definition and epistemological proof: definiendum = definiens

infinite regress problem and the regress argument.

The trilemma: infinity, circularity and contradiction.

Philosophy of Contradiction: Philosophy of contradiction is the basic structure of knowledge and justification. Foundationalism vs coherentism. Coherentism is a form of foundationalism.

Why the fundamental laws of nature are fundamental? why not others, or, otherwise? why axioms are just axioms? Is tautology inevitable in ontology?

Is there any ultimate building block? From a reductionist approach, we find nothing but some mathematical entities at the bottom level of physical reality. But mathes are mere abstract realities.

We have to have a theory of everything, no matter it is a/the God to someones, Or, nature to others.

Pregnant with reality: We are pregnant with reality. There is no really real reality out there. At Least, we can’t prove that. But feel it intrinsically from a first-person point of view. By using the ontological way of understanding, we most justifiably assume a really real reality out there.

Ethics and exclusiveness of philosophy of contradiction: (1) to be aware of and (2) confess and (3) try the best to delimit the inherent contradictions

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