what is philsophy

What is philosophy?

– Philosophy then as [any knowledge = philosophy]

– Philosophy now as a “second order subject”

defining philosophy:

tautology or the circularity problem. Paradoxical nature of philosophical problems.

characteristics of any philosophical discussion:

[a wrong but very practical definition of philosophy, Philosophy is what the philosophers do, when they are doing philosophy …!]


(1) Big, fundamental or basic issues,

(2) openness or freedom of queries, and

(3) argumentative analysis [it’s the Method of philosophy.]


Philosophy is not a traditional subject. It’s is a seconder order subject. Actually, it’s a method of engaging with basic issues of other disciplines.

Problem of the definitions of philosophy that start with “জীবন ও জগতের ….”

Areas of philosophical studies:


  1. Core philosophy:


  • metaphysics [reality or being],
  • epistemology [knowledge],


  • logic [laws of thought and good reasoning]
  • ethics [ought or should, normative aspects]
  • aesthetics [sense of beauty]


  1. Branches of philosophy as “philosophy of …..”


  1. Eastern philosophy:

Muslim philosophy, Indian philosophy, far-eastern philosophy that includes Chinese and Japanese philosophy and Bangladesh philosophy


History of philosophy:

  • Greek philosophy, medieval philosophy, modern philosophy, post-Hegelian philosophy or contemporary philosophy.
  • Analytic-continental split.

Western philosophy vs eastern philosophy:


western philosophy –

  • merits [freeness, argument basis, in-depth and it works in all the areas.]
  • demerits [Dichotomy or binary]

eastern philosophy

  • merits [hierarchical and integration]
  • demerits [ lack of freeness, burden of scriptural reference, descriptive. It doesn’t work in all the relevant areas of human understanding and interest.]


utility of philosophical studies:


– analytic power, critical thinking, ethical life, knowledge-based society and social pluralism.


Contribution of philosophy:


– Giving rise to and protection the human civilization.

– initiating and guiding science and technology as an outcome.

– Philosophy is the foundation and life line of any scholarly study and research.

– philosophy shows the possible alternative ways

– only philosophy can give us certain of knowledge. A priori truths, square circle, time travel


Urgent reforms in philosophical studies in Bangladesh:


– student size, class room facilities and exam system.

– To introduce philosophical contents in primary and secondary level.

– To allow anyone to take credit-earning relevant philosophy courses in their under-grad and graduate level.


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